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Linux - 国内镜像源

24 Aug 2020  (Last Update on 04 Apr 2022)

linux mirror

我们作为国内用户在使用各 Linux 发行版时,往往会因为网络原因导致在搜索、安装和更新软件包时速度十分缓慢,极大地降低了用户体验。所以在安装 Linux 发行版时,不可或缺的一步就是替换发行版默认的软件源。

清华软件源 §

清华大学作为国内顶尖大学,计算机学科自然也是全国第一。其对于计算机学科基础设施的建设也投入甚多。Linux 发行版的镜像软件源就是其中之一。

该文章均使用清华大学开源软件镜像站所提供的镜像服务。该服务提供了近百种 Linux 发行版(Ubuntu、Debian、Fedora、CentOS、Arch 甚至 Raspberry Pi OS 等)软件源、开源软件镜像源(PyPi、Node.js、Docker、K8S 等)。

本文所有相关代码均可在官网找到。版权由清华大学开源软件镜像站所有。

为保证代码的时效性,请尽量使用清华大学开源软件镜像站上提供的修改模版。本文仅用作参考。

Ubuntu §

版本代号 & 镜像下载 §

更换软件源 §

直接编辑 /etc/apt/sources.list 文件或者在 /etc/apt/sources.list.d 目录下添加任意文件。

注释掉 /etc/apt/sources.list 中的原有内容,并根据你的系统版本添加如下内容:

  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (focal)

    # 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
      
    # 预发布软件源,不建议启用
    # deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    
  • Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (bionic)

    # 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
      
    # 预发布软件源,不建议启用
    # deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    
  • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (xenial)

    # 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
      
    # 预发布软件源,不建议启用
    # deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    

其中诸如 deb-src 的源码镜像源默认是不启用的,如果你需要手动编译安装某些软件,可以考虑启用。

Debian §

版本代号 & 镜像下载 §

更换软件源 §

直接编辑 /etc/apt/sources.list 文件或者在 /etc/apt/sources.list.d 目录下添加任意文件。

注释掉 /etc/apt/sources.list 中的原有内容,并根据你的系统版本添加如下内容:

  • Debian 10 (buster)

    # 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ buster main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ buster main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ buster-updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ buster-updates main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ buster-backports main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ buster-backports main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security buster/updates main contrib non-free
    
  • Debian 9 (stretch)

    # 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ stretch main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ stretch main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ stretch-updates main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ stretch-backports main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ stretch-backports main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib non-free
    
  • Debian 8 (jessie)

    # 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ jessie-backports main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ jessie-backports main contrib non-free
    deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security jessie/updates main contrib non-free
    # deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security jessie/updates main contrib non-free
    

CentOS §

版本代号 & 镜像下载 §

更换软件源 §

建议先备份 CentOS-Base.repo:

sudo cp /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo.bak

然后编辑 /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo 文件,在 mirrorlist= 开头行前面加 # 注释掉;并将 baseurl= 开头行取消注释(如果被注释的话),把该行内的域名(例如mirror.centos.org)替换为 mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn

或者,你也可以直接使用如下内容覆盖掉 /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo 文件(未经充分测试):

  • CentOS 8

    # CentOS-Base.repo
    #
    # The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the
    # update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and
    # geographically close to the client.  You should use this for CentOS updates
    # unless you are manually picking other mirrors.
    #
    # If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fall back you can try the
    # remarked out baseurl= line instead.
    #
    #
      
      
      
    [BaseOS]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Base
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/BaseOS/$basearch/os/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=BaseOS&infra=$infra
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
      
    [AppStream]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - AppStream
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/AppStream/$basearch/os/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=AppStream&infra=$infra
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
      
    [PowerTools]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - PowerTools
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/PowerTools/$basearch/os/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=PowerTools&infra=$infra
    enabled=0
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
      
      
    #additional packages that may be useful
    [extras]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/os/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
      
      
      
    #additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
    [centosplus]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Plus
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/os/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus
    gpgcheck=1
    enabled=0
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-centosofficial
    
  • CentOS 7

    # CentOS-Base.repo
    #
    # The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the
    # update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and
    # geographically close to the client.  You should use this for CentOS updates
    # unless you are manually picking other mirrors.
    #
    # If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fall back you can try the
    # remarked out baseurl= line instead.
    #
    #
      
      
    [base]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Base
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-7
      
    #released updates
    [updates]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-7
      
      
      
    #additional packages that may be useful
    [extras]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-7
      
      
      
    #additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
    [centosplus]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Plus
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus
    gpgcheck=1
    enabled=0
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-7
    
  • CentOS 6

    # CentOS-Base.repo
    #
    # The mirror system uses the connecting IP address of the client and the
    # update status of each mirror to pick mirrors that are updated to and
    # geographically close to the client.  You should use this for CentOS updates
    # unless you are manually picking other mirrors.
    #
    # If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fall back you can try the
    # remarked out baseurl= line instead.
    #
    #
      
      
    [base]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Base
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-6
      
    #released updates
    [updates]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Updates
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-6
      
      
      
    #additional packages that may be useful
    [extras]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-6
      
      
      
    #additional packages that extend functionality of existing packages
    [centosplus]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Plus
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus
    gpgcheck=1
    enabled=0
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-6
      
      
    #contrib - packages by Centos Users
    [contrib]
    name=CentOS-$releasever - Contrib
    baseurl=https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/centos/$releasever/contrib/$basearch/
    #mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=contrib
    gpgcheck=1
    enabled=0
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-6
    

更新 yum 软件包缓存:

sudo yum makecache

其它 §

其它 Linux 发行版更改软件源方式详询清华大学开源软件镜像站