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Linux - 基本命令

28 Oct 2020

linux

在使用 Linux 常会遇到一些不太常用但又非常基本的命令,今天就来总结一下。持续更新…

系统环境 §

以下所有命令均基于 Ubuntu 18.04 amd64 版本以及 CentOS 7.8 amd64。不保证在其它发行版上的正确性。但是在通常情况下是通用的。

查询系统信息 §

基本信息 §

  • 系统位数

    • Ubuntu

      $ getconf LONG_BIT
      64
      $ file /bin/ls
      /bin/ls: ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2, for GNU/Linux 3.2.0, BuildID[sha1]=9567f9a28e66f4d7ec4baf31cfbf68d0410f0ae6, stripped
      
    • CentOS

      $ getconf LONG_BIT
      64
      $ file /bin/ls
      /bin/ls: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=aaf05615b6c91d3cbb076af81aeff531c5d7dfd9, stripped
      
  • 系统内核版本信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ uname -a
      Linux iZ2zehx4vggo1gk4clxdy2Z 4.15.0-48-generic #51-Ubuntu SMP Wed Apr 3 08:28:49 UTC 2019 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
      
    • CentOS

      $ uname -a
      Linux iz2zefu8x0w8a73lncvuicz 3.10.0-1127.13.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Tue Jun 23 15:46:38 UTC 2020 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
      
  • 系统内核版本、编译等信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ cat /proc/version
      Linux version 4.15.0-48-generic (buildd@lgw01-amd64-036) (gcc version 7.3.0 (Ubuntu 7.3.0-16ubuntu3)) #51-Ubuntu SMP Wed Apr 3 08:28:49 UTC 2019
      
    • CentOS

      $ cat /proc/version
      Linux version 3.10.0-1127.13.1.el7.x86_64 (mockbuild@kbuilder.bsys.centos.org) (gcc version 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-39) (GCC) ) #1 SMP Tue Jun 23 15:46:38 UTC 2020
      
  • 系统内核模块加载信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ lsmod
      Module                  Size  Used by
      btrfs                1122304  0
      zstd_compress         163840  1 btrfs
      xor                    24576  1 btrfs
      raid6_pq              114688  1 btrfs
      ufs                    77824  0
      qnx4                   16384  0
      ...
      
    • CentOS

      $ lsmod
      Module                  Size  Used by
      xt_nat                 12681  6 
      binfmt_misc            17468  1 
      veth                   13458  0 
      xt_conntrack           12760  2 
      ipt_MASQUERADE         12678  4 
      nf_nat_masquerade_ipv4    13463  1 ipt_MASQUERADE
      
  • 查看系统发行版本信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ lsb_release -a
      LSB Version:    core-9.20170808ubuntu1-noarch:security-9.20170808ubuntu1-noarch
      Distributor ID: Ubuntu
      Description:    Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS
      Release:        18.04
      Codename:       bionic
      $ cat /etc/issue
      Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS \n \l
      
    • CentOS

      $ lsb_release -a
      LSB Version:    :core-4.1-amd64:core-4.1-noarch
      Distributor ID: CentOS
      Description:    CentOS Linux release 7.8.2003 (Core)
      Release:        7.8.2003
      Codename:       Core
      $ cat /etc/redhat-release
      CentOS Linux release 7.8.2003 (Core)
      
  • 开机时间、用户数、平均负载信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ uptime
       11:12:30 up 47 days, 49 min,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00
      
    • CentOS

      $ uptime
       11:13:14 up 68 days,  1:24,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.01, 0.05
      

硬件信息 §

  • 查看 CPU 信息

    • Ubuntu

      # 基本信息
      $ lscpu
      Architecture:        x86_64
      CPU op-mode(s):      32-bit, 64-bit
      Byte Order:          Little Endian
      CPU(s):              1
      On-line CPU(s) list: 0
      Thread(s) per core:  1
      Core(s) per socket:  1
      Socket(s):           1
      NUMA node(s):        1
      Vendor ID:           GenuineIntel
      CPU family:          6
      Model:               85
      Model name:          Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8163 CPU @ 2.50GHz
      Stepping:            4
      CPU MHz:             2499.998
      BogoMIPS:            4999.99
      Hypervisor vendor:   KVM
      Virtualization type: full
      L1d cache:           32K
      L1i cache:           32K
      L2 cache:            1024K
      L3 cache:            33792K
      NUMA node0 CPU(s):   0
      Flags:               fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl nonstop_tsc cpuid pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch invpcid_single pti ibrs ibpb stibp fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 hle avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid rtm mpx avx512f avx512dq rdseed adx smap avx512cd avx512bw avx512vl xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 arat
      # 详细信息,精确到每一核
      $ cat /proc/cpuinfo
      processor       : 0
      vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
      cpu family      : 6
      model           : 85
      model name      : Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8163 CPU @ 2.50GHz
      stepping        : 4
      microcode       : 0x1
      cpu MHz         : 2499.998
      cache size      : 33792 KB
      physical id     : 0
      siblings        : 1
      core id         : 0
      cpu cores       : 1
      apicid          : 0
      initial apicid  : 0
      fpu             : yes
      fpu_exception   : yes
      cpuid level     : 13
      wp              : yes
      flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl nonstop_tsc cpuid pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch invpcid_single pti ibrs ibpb stibp fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 hle avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid rtm mpx avx512f avx512dq rdseed adx smap avx512cd avx512bw avx512vl xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 arat
      bugs            : cpu_meltdown spectre_v1 spectre_v2 spec_store_bypass l1tf
      bogomips        : 4999.99
      clflush size    : 64
      cache_alignment : 64
      address sizes   : 46 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
      power management:
      ...
      
    • CentOS

      # 基本信息
      $ lscpu
      Architecture:          x86_64
      CPU op-mode(s):        32-bit, 64-bit
      Byte Order:            Little Endian
      CPU(s):                4
      On-line CPU(s) list:   0-3
      Thread(s) per core:    2
      Core(s) per socket:    2
      Socket(s):             1
      NUMA node(s):          1
      Vendor ID:             GenuineIntel
      CPU family:            6
      Model:                 85
      Model name:            Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8269CY CPU @ 2.50GHz
      Stepping:              7
      CPU MHz:               2500.000
      BogoMIPS:              5000.00
      Hypervisor vendor:     KVM
      Virtualization type:   full
      L1d cache:             32K
      L1i cache:             32K
      L2 cache:              1024K
      L3 cache:              36608K
      NUMA node0 CPU(s):     0-3
      Flags:                 fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl nonstop_tsc eagerfpu pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch invpcid_single fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 hle avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid rtm mpx avx512f avx512dq rdseed adx smap avx512cd avx512bw avx512vl xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 arat avx512_vnni
      # 详细信息,精确到每一核
      $ cat /proc/cpuinfo
      processor       : 0
      vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
      cpu family      : 6
      model           : 85
      model name      : Intel(R) Xeon(R) Platinum 8269CY CPU @ 2.50GHz
      stepping        : 7
      microcode       : 0x1
      cpu MHz         : 2500.000
      cache size      : 36608 KB
      physical id     : 0
      siblings        : 4
      core id         : 0
      cpu cores       : 2
      apicid          : 0
      initial apicid  : 0
      fpu             : yes
      fpu_exception   : yes
      cpuid level     : 22
      wp              : yes
      flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 ss ht syscall nx pdpe1gb rdtscp lm constant_tsc rep_good nopl nonstop_tsc eagerfpu pni pclmulqdq ssse3 fma cx16 pcid sse4_1 sse4_2 x2apic movbe popcnt tsc_deadline_timer aes xsave avx f16c rdrand hypervisor lahf_lm abm 3dnowprefetch invpcid_single fsgsbase tsc_adjust bmi1 hle avx2 smep bmi2 erms invpcid rtm mpx avx512f avx512dq rdseed adx smap avx512cd avx512bw avx512vl xsaveopt xsavec xgetbv1 arat avx512_vnni
      bogomips        : 5000.00
      clflush size    : 64
      cache_alignment : 64
      address sizes   : 46 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
      power management:
      ...
      
  • 内存信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ free -m
                    total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
      Mem:           1993         560          96           1        1336        1249
      Swap:           947           6         940
      $ cat /proc/meminfo
      MemTotal:        7733000 kB
      MemFree:         2780720 kB
      MemAvailable:    5848968 kB
      Buffers:          284336 kB
      Cached:          2817548 kB
      SwapCached:            0 kB
      Active:          3272980 kB
      Inactive:        1291048 kB
      Active(anon):    1462416 kB
      Inactive(anon):      264 kB
      Active(file):    1810564 kB
      Inactive(file):  1290784 kB
      Unevictable:           0 kB
      Mlocked:               0 kB
      SwapTotal:             0 kB
      SwapFree:              0 kB
      Dirty:                24 kB
      Writeback:             0 kB
      AnonPages:       1462140 kB
      Mapped:           117640 kB
      Shmem:               540 kB
      Slab:             292916 kB
      SReclaimable:     271868 kB
      SUnreclaim:        21048 kB
      KernelStack:        3696 kB
      PageTables:         7240 kB
      NFS_Unstable:          0 kB
      Bounce:                0 kB
      WritebackTmp:          0 kB
      CommitLimit:     3866500 kB
      Committed_AS:    2402088 kB
      VmallocTotal:   34359738367 kB
      VmallocUsed:       19948 kB
      VmallocChunk:   34359712252 kB
      Percpu:              800 kB
      HardwareCorrupted:     0 kB
      AnonHugePages:   1230848 kB
      CmaTotal:              0 kB
      CmaFree:               0 kB
      HugePages_Total:       0
      HugePages_Free:        0
      HugePages_Rsvd:        0
      HugePages_Surp:        0
      Hugepagesize:       2048 kB
      DirectMap4k:       96952 kB
      DirectMap2M:     2768896 kB
      DirectMap1G:     5242880 kB
      
    • CentOS

      $ free -m
                    total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
      Mem:           7551        1541        2715           0        3294        5711
      Swap:             0           0           0
      $ cat /proc/meminfo
      MemTotal:        7733000 kB
      MemFree:         2781092 kB
      MemAvailable:    5849356 kB
      Buffers:          284336 kB
      Cached:          2817568 kB
      SwapCached:            0 kB
      Active:          3273048 kB
      Inactive:        1291032 kB
      Active(anon):    1462452 kB
      Inactive(anon):      264 kB
      Active(file):    1810596 kB
      Inactive(file):  1290768 kB
      Unevictable:           0 kB
      Mlocked:               0 kB
      SwapTotal:             0 kB
      SwapFree:              0 kB
      Dirty:                24 kB
      Writeback:             0 kB
      AnonPages:       1462208 kB
      Mapped:           117640 kB
      Shmem:               540 kB
      Slab:             292884 kB
      SReclaimable:     271868 kB
      SUnreclaim:        21016 kB
      KernelStack:        3696 kB
      PageTables:         7240 kB
      NFS_Unstable:          0 kB
      Bounce:                0 kB
      WritebackTmp:          0 kB
      CommitLimit:     3866500 kB
      Committed_AS:    2402088 kB
      VmallocTotal:   34359738367 kB
      VmallocUsed:       19948 kB
      VmallocChunk:   34359712252 kB
      Percpu:              800 kB
      HardwareCorrupted:     0 kB
      AnonHugePages:   1230848 kB
      CmaTotal:              0 kB
      CmaFree:               0 kB
      HugePages_Total:       0
      HugePages_Free:        0
      HugePages_Rsvd:        0
      HugePages_Surp:        0
      Hugepagesize:       2048 kB
      DirectMap4k:       96952 kB
      DirectMap2M:     2768896 kB
      DirectMap1G:     5242880 kB
      
  • 磁盘信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ lsblk
      NAME   MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
      vda    252:0    0  40G  0 disk 
      └─vda1 252:1    0  40G  0 part /
      $ df
      Filesystem     1K-blocks     Used Available Use% Mounted on
      udev              998184        0    998184   0% /dev
      tmpfs             204124     6704    197420   4% /run
      /dev/vda1       41152812 10847444  28401712  28% /
      tmpfs            1020608        0   1020608   0% /dev/shm
      tmpfs               5120        0      5120   0% /run/lock
      tmpfs            1020608        0   1020608   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
      overlay         41152812 10847444  28401712  28% /var/lib/docker/overlay2/be844ce0c2b9815231c6cacfbe3c23a95bc3f60178dd1d47ccd0193e534eae33/merged
      tmpfs             204120        0    204120   0% /run/user/0
      $ fdisk -l
      Disk /dev/vda: 40 GiB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
      Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
      Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      Disklabel type: dos
      Disk identifier: 0xfec7dc5a
          
      Device     Boot Start      End  Sectors Size Id Type
      /dev/vda1  *     2048 83886046 83883999  40G 83 Linux
      # 磁盘读写速度
      $ iostat
      Linux 4.15.0-48-generic (iZ2zehx4vggo1gk4clxdy2Z)       10/28/2020      _x86_64_        (1 CPU)
          
      avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
                 0.59    0.00    0.45    0.02    0.00   98.94
          
      Device             tps    kB_read/s    kB_wrtn/s    kB_read    kB_wrtn
      vda               0.57         0.97         4.55    3912031   18372393
          
      
    • CentOS

      $ lsblk
      NAME   MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
      vda    253:0    0  40G  0 disk 
      └─vda1 253:1    0  40G  0 part /
      $ df
      Filesystem     1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
      devtmpfs         3856184       0   3856184   0% /dev
      tmpfs            3866500       0   3866500   0% /dev/shm
      tmpfs            3866500     540   3865960   1% /run
      tmpfs            3866500       0   3866500   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
      /dev/vda1       41151808 8950652  30087724  23% /
      tmpfs             773300       0    773300   0% /run/user/0
      overlay         41151808 8950652  30087724  23% /var/lib/docker/overlay2/33222ef47484c66c3b4e48b0d57fb3bd8584894c8751c011c8894f545a9e2e09/merged
      $ fdisk -l
          
      Disk /dev/vda: 42.9 GB, 42949672960 bytes, 83886080 sectors
      Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
      Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
      Disk label type: dos
      Disk identifier: 0x0008de3e
          
         Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
      /dev/vda1   *        2048    83884031    41940992   83  Linux
      # 磁盘读写速度
      $ iostat
      Linux 3.10.0-1127.13.1.el7.x86_64 (iz2zefu8x0w8a73lncvuicz)     10/28/2020      _x86_64_        (4 CPU)
          
      avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
                 0.09    0.00    0.07    0.00    0.00   99.84
          
      Device:            tps    kB_read/s    kB_wrtn/s    kB_read    kB_wrtn
      vda               0.23         0.11         1.99     676105   11672940
          
      
  • PCI 设备信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ lspci -tv
      -[0000:00]-+-00.0  Intel Corporation 440FX - 82441FX PMC [Natoma]
                 +-01.0  Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 ISA [Natoma/Triton II]
                 +-01.1  Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
                 +-01.2  Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 USB [Natoma/Triton II]
                 +-01.3  Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI
                 +-02.0  Cirrus Logic GD 5446
                 +-03.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio network device
                 +-04.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio console
                 +-05.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio block device
                 \-06.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio memory balloon
      
    • CentOS

      $ lspci -tv
      -[0000:00]-+-00.0  Intel Corporation 440FX - 82441FX PMC [Natoma]
                 +-01.0  Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 ISA [Natoma/Triton II]
                 +-01.1  Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
                 +-01.2  Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 USB [Natoma/Triton II]
                 +-01.3  Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI
                 +-02.0  Cirrus Logic GD 5446
                 +-03.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio console
                 +-04.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio block device
                 +-05.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio network device
                 \-06.0  Red Hat, Inc. Virtio memory balloon
      
  • USB 设备信息

    • Ubuntu

      $ lsusb -tv
      /:  Bus 01.Port 1: Dev 1, Class=root_hub, Driver=uhci_hcd/2p, 12M
          |__ Port 1: Dev 2, If 0, Class=Human Interface Device, Driver=usbhid, 12M
      

常用工具 §

压缩 / 解压缩 §

  • .zip

    • 压缩

      $ zip demo.zip ./demo_a ./demo_b
      
    • 解压

      $ unzip demo.zip
      

    更多参数请参考相关命令说明手册

  • .tar

    • 压缩

      $ tar -cvf demo.tar ./demo_a ./demo_b
      
    • 解压

      $ tar -xvf demo.tar
      

    更多参数请参考相关命令说明手册

  • tar.gz

    • 压缩

      $ tar -zcvf demo.tar.gz ./demo_a ./demo_b
      
    • 解压

      $ tar -zxvf demo.tar.gz
      

    更多参数请参考相关命令说明手册

图片处理 §

Linux 平台有很多用于处理图片的工具,例如ImageMagickjpegoptimpngcrush 等。这里主要介绍 ImageMagick 的用法。

  • ImageMagick 介绍:

    • ImageMagick 官网
    • 使用 ImageMagick 的创建,编辑,撰写,或转换位图图像。它可以读取和写入各种格式(超过200种)的图像,包括 PNG,JPEG,GIF,HEIC,TIFF,DPX,EXR,WebP,Postscript,PDF 和 SVG。使用ImageMagick可以调整图像大小,翻转,镜像,旋转,变形,剪切和变换图像,调整图像颜色,应用各种特殊效果或绘制文本,线条,多边形,椭圆和贝塞尔曲线。
  • ImageMagick 安装:

    • 本地 apt 安装:

      $ apt install imagemagick
      
    • 官网下载即用型二进制文件:

      $ wget https://download.imagemagick.org/ImageMagick/download/binaries/magick
      

    注意:由于 apt 安装的 ImageMagick 版本为7以下版本,故不支持 magick 命令,依旧需要使用诸如 convertidentifyanimate 等字命令来进行工作

  • ImageMagick 样例:

    • 转换格式:

      $ convert xxx.jpeg xxx.png
      
    • 压缩图片:

      # 将图片像素改为1920*1080
      $ convert -resize 1920x1080 xxx.jpeg xxx.jpeg
      # 将图片压缩为原来的50%*50%
      $ convert -sample 50%x50% xxx.jpeg xxx.jpeg
      # 使用 -quality 参数控制压缩图片的质量,参数值可以是0~100之间的任意数
      $ convert -resize 500x500 -quality 75 xxx.jpeg xxx.jpeg
      
    • 批量压缩图片:

      # 压缩当前目录下所有后缀名包含在列表中的图片
      $ find ./ -regex '.*\(jpg\|JPG\|png\|PNG\|jpeg\)' -size +50k -exec convert -resize 100x100 {} {} \;
      

远程连接 §

  • SSH 连接远程主机:

    $ ssh root@112.113.114.115 # 以 root 用户身份登陆 112.113.114.115 IP 对应的远程主机
    $ ssh user@myhost.com # 以 user 用户身份登陆 myhost.com 域名对应的远程主机
    
  • 向(从)远程主机复制文件:

    $ scp ~/myfile.txt root@112.113.114.115:/root/CopyFiles/ # 将本机主目录下的 myfile.txt 复制到以 root 身份登陆的 112.113.114.115 IP 对应的远程主机的 /root/CopyFiles/ 目录下
    $ scp user@myhost.com:/home/user/myfile.txt ~/CopyFiles/ # 将以 root 身份登陆的 112.113.114.115 IP 对应的远程主机的 /home/user/myfile.txt 复制到本机主目录的 CopyFiles 目录下
    

参考 §